Author, Ingemar Borelius discusses the history of the purebred dog – breed standards, breeding between varieties of breeds, effects of the reduction in heterozygosity/narrowing gene pools and current efforts and measures taken to sustain genetic diversity in breeds with the aim of addressing health and welfare issues. Specific breeds mentioned in this writing are the Retrievers and several others (Spaniels, Lundehund, German pinscher, Kromfohrländer…) . Link to the full article.
“Kennel clubs around the world are taking firm actions to improve health levels and to counteract unsound manifestations of different conformation features in pedigree dogs. Programs are initiated to follow up and act upon hereditary diseases in most breeds. But the measures taken to act upon the dramatic effects of inbreeding in most pure‐bred dogs are to say the least inefficient. Molecular genetic analysis is de facto the most accurate method to assess inbreeding levels in a breed. Cross breeding, or breeding between varieties of breeds, is the only tool to broaden gene pools when a sustainable genetic diversity is lost. Successful crossbreeding programs are executed in the Nordic countries to restore lost gene pools, but why isn’t it used on a larger scale?“